Good communication skills help children and young people escape from disadvantage. Vocabulary at age five has been found to be the best predictor (from a range of measures at ages five and ten) of whether children who experienced social deprivation in childhood were able to ‘buck the trend’ and escape poverty in later adult life.


  • Blanden, J., 2006 Bucking the Trend – What enables those who are disadvantaged in childhood to succeed later in life? London: Department for Work and Pensions
  • Cook, S.W., Z. Mitchell, and S. Goldin-Meadow, 2008 Gesturing makes learning last Cognition 106, pp1047-1058
  • Faulkner,C.,2007,The Signs for Success Programme and better behaviour, Action for Inclusion, Issue 19 /March 2007
  • Daniels, M., 2001 Dancing with words: Signing for Hearing Children USA: Greenwood Publishing
  • Felzer, L., 1998 A multisensory reading program that really works  Teaching and Change 5/2, pp169-183
  • Heller, I., et al., 1998 Let’s all sign! Enhancing language development in an inclusive preschool. Teaching Exceptional Children, from the Teacher Centre Database


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